Ablation - Destruction.
Adjuvant - Assisting
or aiding. Used to describe a secondary treatment that is applied
following definitive local therapy.
Adrenalectomy - Removal
of the adrenal galand.
Androgen - Any substance
that possesses masculinizing activities. Androgens elicit growth
of both normal prostate and most malignant prostatic cells.
Androgen Deprivation- A
therapeutic strategy designed to decrease circulating levels of
androgen, such as testosterone. Can be done by removing organs that
produce testosterone (i.e., testicles, called orchiectomy), or by
Aneuploid - Having
more or less than the normal or diploid number of chromosomes.
Angiogenesis - The
birth of new blood vessels.
Antiandrogen - Oral
agents such as flutamide (Eulexin), bicalutamide (Casodex), and
nilutamide that block the action of testosterone and its active
metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT) at the cellular level by interfering
with androgen receptor interactions.
Antiandrogen withdrawal (AAWD) - A
clinical syndrome in which discontinuation of an antiandrogen in
a patient with progressive disease may result in PSA declines, symptomatic
improvement, and tumor regression; occurs in 15-30% of eligible
Antibody - A molecule
made by the immune system which circulates in body fluid. An antibody
has a specific amino acid sequence which interacts only with the
antigen that induces its synthesis.
Antigen - A peptide
derived from viral, tumor and in some cases, self products, capable
under appropriate conditions of inducing a specific immune response.
Antigen receptor -
Structure used by T lymphocytes to recognize antigens.
Apoptosis - Programmed
Augmentation cystoplasty -
The use of a segment of intestine to increase bladder capacity.
Autocrine - Self-acting.
For example, a growth factor which acts directly upon the cell which
Removal of the kidney and placement in the pelvis near the bladder.